✪✪✪ Gender Roles During The 1930s

Friday, September 10, 2021 10:50:31 PM

Gender Roles During The 1930s

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The Roles and Rights of Women in the 1930s

Sensing growing frustration, Garvey used his considerable charisma to attract thousands of disillusioned black working-class and lower middle-class followers and became the most popular black leader in America in the early s. The UNIA, committed to notions of racial purity and separatism, insisted that salvation for African Americans meant building an autonomous, black-led nation in Africa. To link up the fifty million Negroes in the United States of America, with the twenty million Negroes of the West Indies, the forty million Negroes of South and Central America, with the two hundred and eighty million Negroes of Africa, for the purpose of bettering our industrial, commercial, educational, social, and political conditions.

As you are aware, the world in which we live today is divided into separate race groups and distinct nationalities. Each race and each nationality is endeavoring to work out its own destiny, to the exclusion of other races and other nationalities. There are million Africans in the world who have Negro blood coursing through their veins, and we believe that the time has come to unite these million people toward the one common purpose of bettering their condition. The great problem of the Negro for the last years has been that of disunity. No one or no organization ever succeeded in uniting the Negro race.

But within the last four years, the Universal Negro Improvement Association has worked wonders. It is bringing together in one fold four million organized Negroes who are scattered in all parts of the world. These four million people are working to convert the rest of the four hundred million that are all over the world, and it is for this purpose, that we are asking you to join our land and to do the best you can to help us to bring about an emancipated race.

Nevertheless, in the United States, women's participation in the labor force in World War II created a feeling among many women, after the war ended, that they also deserved the same types of rights as men in jobs they filled. This was highlighted by the fact that many men who came back and retook their old jobs from women who were doing them during the war also were given higher salaries, further highlighting this inequality. In the s, the economy began to expand, and the height of the red scare or anti-communist sentiment began to diminish feminist organization. By the early s, the social atmosphere began to be conducive for a major feminist movement.

After World War II, some writers began to question how women in society were perceived and the role they played, particularly as the war had shown women made valuable contributions and in many cases performed tasks equally to me. In , Simone de Beauvoir published The Second Sex , a groundbreaking book that questioned how society viewed women and the role in which they played. After some time, the movement gained greater traction through more authors in the s. Betty Friedan was perhaps one of the most influential writers at this time. After surveying her classmates, Friedan noticed that many of her classmates were unhappy in their marriages where their lives revolved around childcare and housework.

This realization prompted her to write The Feminine Mystique in where she questioned white, middle-class ideals of family life and motherhood. She focused mainly on domestic life because she believed it had stifled women and their aspirations. In her book, Friedan includes interviews with women who were unhappy in their home life, debunking the ideals of the s that often showed a happy family with men at work and women focused on housework.

The book fundamentally questioned if the s ideals were in the best interest of women. The book and politics in the s led to some initial victories for the emerging second wave women's movement. These successes include the establishment of the National Organization for Women, where Friedan joined the organization, and the first great legislative victory, which was the passage of the Equal Pay Act of This made it law for women to have an equal right to equal pay for the same jobs that men did. It made it now possible for women to now not be prevented from joining the labor force due to depressed wages.

Other changes, including the introduction of the contraceptive pill and the introduction of abortion in Europe, began to have political ramifications. The pill, on the one hand, allowed women to delay childbirth and establish careers in many cases. Abortion also gave women greater choices about rearing children. In , Katy Millett wrote Sexual Politics and wrote about the patriarchal structure of society that controls sex, sexual expression, and ultimately politics and the narrative of political discourse. Sex and gender oppression are common because of political discourse found in society. Millets argued that before any other type of oppression existed, elite men first oppressed people based on sex and gender, extending later to race and class.

In the s, the second wave feminist movement expanded and continued to gain momentum. Carol Hanisch published an essay in titled "The Personal is Political. If a woman decided to have an abortion and get a job as a woman in a male-dominated industry, then that decision has political consequences and became politicized in society. Women had to bring their private, household problems into the public sphere because issues were politicized and had consequence far outside of an individual. Increasingly in the s and s, second-wave feminism diverged into two separate ideological movements: Equal rights feminism and radical feminism.

Within equal-rights feminism, the objective sought equality with men in political and social spheres, where legislation and laws such as legalization of abortion and efforts to make women more established on the workforce equal to men were the primary goals. Radical feminism, on the other hand, wanted much more radical change to the society that fundamentally saw it as patriarchal and needed to be altered if women were to escape its oppression. The equal-rights feminists were largely white, older in age, and most came from affluent backgrounds. Radical feminists were made up younger white, affluent women, and minority women of all ages who were active in the Civil Rights movement as well.

Women of color found themselves underrepresented in both the racial and gender movements that were simultaneously fighting for greater equality. Some non-white feminists criticized the wider feminist movement for failing to be equal in the movement's representation and incorporating racial and other issues. Across the United States, minority women began the fight against racial and gender oppression by creating their organizations.

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